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Use Sonasil  -  Save Energy - Use Calcium Silicate Insulation - Save Energy

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The product
Sonasil -  
Calcium Silicate Insulation
Innovative content
Competitive edge
CSI v/s Mineral Wool
Optimum Cost benefit - performance
Economic thickness of insulation

Cement Industry
Aluminum Industry
Steel Industry
Glass Industry
Rolling Mill Furnaces
Valued customers

Research & Development
Paper Presentation
Key Personnel
Team @ MIPL
Project participation
Project turn-key
New Products
              with respect to competing technologies in India and abroad.

Energy Management with the help of Sankey Diagram

The Sankey diagram graphically represents where heat energy comes from and goes in process equipment. Arrows represent KWH, Kcal/hour or energy Vs. time and its width shows quantity of heat flow for particular activity.

Gross Input Energy: It is the heat energy put into the equipment.

Exhaust Losses: (A) flue gas losses are product of combustion created by burning fuel and level the equipment at higher temperature. This loss is must to maintain equipment temperature and production.

(B) Excess air losses are caused by the excess air & moisture driven out. Air enters due to negative pressure at doors or seals and leaves at high temperature. This loss can be reduced.

Radiation Losses: This occurs thru openings of doors/windows. This loss is a function of temp. deference between equipment & its surroundings, size of openings and the time it is kept open. Radiation losses are significant when equipment temp. exceeds 1000oF.

Storage Losses: Equipment structure absorbs energy to reach its operating temp. In a batch process, the Equipment losses energy when it cools pertly or to room temp. between production cycles. Higher the weight of equipment; higher is the heat loss.

Wall Losses: I is heat that escapes thru equipments walls, roof and floor. There is not perfectly (100%) insulated heating equipment. Insulation slows down the rate of heat flow and minimizes losses but still some energy slips thru.

Conveyor Losses: Load travels in & out of the equipment on rack/conveyor belts, baskets, etc. that leaves the equipment at higher temp. as compared to the temp. it enters. Heat loss depends upon temp. difference and weight of material handling system.

Heat to the Load (useful output): Gross heat input less above losses is net heat available for the equipment and the production pays the price for energy used.

Any activity has 3 effects:

  • It creates value
  • It does not create value but is reducible and
  • It does not create value (creates waste) but is unavoidable

Energy conversion Efficiency: Energy has to be converted from one form to another for application. The chemical energy is fuels is converted into thermal energy (by combustion) to electrical energy (by turbines and engines) and further or even directly to mechanical energy. All the conversion process have in-built in-efficiencies partly because of the technology itself  (maximum conversion efficiency of heat into electrical energy is 43% by Carnot’s principle) and by technical & managerial in-efficiency.

Energy Transfer Efficiency: Energy has to be transferred from the point of generation or availability to the point of application or use. While selecting systems, care should be taken of pollution regulations and operatability and maintainability of the equipments.

Ideal Insulation: An ideal thermal insulation has low mass, high strength and low thermal conductivity coupled with high services temperature. It reduces heat loss and thereby saves energy significantly and serves several functions such as:

  • Reductions of heating load
  • Better working conditions
  • Increases production
  • Fire protection
  • Reduces thermal spalling in refractory lining etc.

Energy Conservation using Calcium Silicate Insulation (CSI)

CSI offers thermal efficiency of flexible insulation coupled with strength of conventional insulation bricks. It conserves thermal energy efficiently and reduces fuel cost upto 30%. It has a long life and once installed requires hardly and maintenance.

It has low thermal conductivity (0.09 W/m °K at 500 °C mean temp.), high compressive strength (16 Kg/Cm2), low bulk density (260 Kg/M3) with high service temp. up to 1100 °C.
Mineral Wool / Rock Wool has no inherent strength because it is compressible. It has low thermal conductivity value up to 300 °C but is suffers badly, as compared to CSI, as service temp. increases.

Conventional mica/vermiculite bricks has high strength at bulk density about 1000 kg/m3 but poor insulating characteristics (0.35 W/m °K at 500 °C mean temp.), as compared to CSI.

Pipe diameter 21 mm to 219mm is supplied in 2 half sections and diameter above 219mm, is supplied in the form of radiused and beveled lags. Slab size are 1500mm x 1000mm x 10 to 150mm thick special

Power, as filler for joints, insulates irregular shapes & size conveniently. IT covers 120 M2 x 25mm thickness per 1000 kg.

Working & Finishing: CSI can be drilled, punched, rubbed, cut and finished with wood cutting machinery.

Application: The surface to be insulated should be cleaned free from rust, dirt, grease, oil, etc. and dried. Metals finish can be secured over insulation to minimize direct contact between surface to be insulated & outer metals cladding. Joints should be vapor tight and expansion joints provided on pipelines to allow expansion of pipes to avoid cracking. Spacing for expansion joints should be provided at every 3 meters for pipe temp. up to 400°C. and 2 metres for pipe temp. about 400°C stagger joints are recommended.

Insulation can be secured to pipes by tying circumferential wires of 16 SWG, Spacing 450mm and ends can be pressed into insulation. Metal rings or studs can support insulation on vertical piping at 3 M interval & above each expansion joint. The support can be welded or clamped to the pipe.

The multiple layer of insulation should be applied such that butt joints of one layer do not coincide those of the next layer for better thermal efficiency. The final outer layer of insulation can be covered by galvanized wire netting stitched with wire and anchored by tying wires. Protrusion through insulation such as pipe clamps, supports of piping, instrument take-offs, etc., may be insulated as per adjacent insulation.

Aluminium foil can be screwed with self-tapping screws on longitudinal joints with 50 mm over lapping. The overlapped joints should be sealed to make it weather proof.

Economic Thickness of Insulation (ETI): We estimate energy cost saving by using NAIMA, USA’s 3E Plus program. ETI is that insulation thickness which yield the lowest annual cost of ownership and operation based on cost of fuel & heat, Ambient temp., Wind speed, Jacket emissivity, Labour rate, Life of insulation & equipment, Interest rate, Income Tax rate, etc.

Equipment Dia. (mm)

Hot Face Temperature

325 °C

550 °C

800 °C

1100 °C

21 to 34





40 to 89





100 to 219





219 to 610





Above 610 & Flat Surfaces







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